According to the ‘Reliance of the Traveler’ Homicide, or murdering someone is perfectly legal, though there are certain criteria for who exactly you are permitted to kill.
According to this manual, as well as the Hedaya Manual 2 kinds of people can be killed.
1) APOSTATES: In Book 01.1 (pg.583, or PDF pg.601), and in 08.0 it stipulates that you cannot shed the blood of a believing Muslim, but if they become an apostate and abandon Islam, then they are permitted to be killed.
Retaliation, better known in the ‘Reliance of the Traveler’ as “justifiable homicide” is in fact obligatory.
And the reason someone can be killed? According to the Hedaya manual (for the Shafi’i school) it can be simply because the person sins against Allah.
There is no punishment for those who do the killing, regardless of whether the believer has first asked the non-believer to convert or not.
The apostate who is being killed is given 3 days to repent; yet, if they refuse, then, providing they had passed puberty according to Book 08.1 – 08.2, they must be killed, because they deserve to die.
Killing of an apostate is also found in the Qur’an, in Surah 4:89.
2) HONOR KILLING: In the ‘Reliance of the Traveler’ book 02.0 we find support for the killing of any child or family member who brings dishonor to the family.
This is also supported in the Qur’an is Surah 18:74 where a dishonorable child is killed which is explained in verses 80-81 that Allah ordained it so that the parents could have another righteous child instead.
So, it is clear that Shariah not only allows but even enjoins Muslims to kill both apostates and those who have brought dishonor to a family.
© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022
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