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Ep.9: Luxenberg finds an Aramaic Qur’an in 7 steps! [Video]

We now move to the ground-breaking work of Chistoph Luxenberg’s research on the Qur’an’s origins, particularly its Syro-Aramaic origins. The material for this video came from Thomas Alexander’s research on Christoph Alexander’s book, entitled “The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Qur’an”, published in 2007.You can see a more in-depth description of Luxenberg’s research by Alexander here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-UPloJW0Oo4&t=435sAccording to Alexander, Luxenberg went to the “dark passages” in the Qur’an to find what they really meant. These are the 25% – 30% of the Qur’an which even today Muslim scholars cannot understand, and are simply considered a mystery. So, Luxenberg decided to apply a textual analysis to these passages to find what they may have meant originally in another language; namely, Syro-Aramaic, used by the Christians in the earlier centuries to write their religious texts.In order to apply a true textual analysis of their meanings, he went to each of those passages and applied a 7-step process:1) Checked with the al Tabari’s 10th century Tafsir (commentary) to find an Arabic meaning for the word.2) Checked the Lisān al-ʿArab (Tongue of Arabs), which was the earliest Arabic Dictionary, written by Ibn Manzur in 1290 AD.3) Looked for homonymous (synonymous) roots in Aramaic with different meanings.4) Tried applying different diacritics, such as those from Aramaic.5) Checked for an Aramaic root using different diacritics.6) Re-translated Arabic words into Aramaic with semantics of the Syro-Aramaic words.7) Tried to find the lost meanings of Arab words using 10th century Syro-Aramaic lexicons.By the time he had employed these 7 steps, he was able to reproduce All of the dark passages, finding that they had all come from pre-Islamic Christian Syro-Aramaic texts!© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(68,380) Music: “Feeling the Caribbean Sun” by Horst Hoffman, from filmmusic-io

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Ep.8 Why are Historical Critics of Islam censored? [Video]

Why do Muslim scholars, as well as Western Academic scholars react so negatively and vociferously against any historical critique of the Qur’an, or of Islam itself?To best understand the question, let’s look at the treatment against Dr Luling’s in Germany in the 1970s, after he produced his Doctoral Thesis, which suggested that much of the beautiful poetry in the Qur’an is nothing more than pre-Qur’anic Christian hymns written in Aramaic, and then borrowed and adulterated later by Muslims when translated into Arabic. Because of his thesis, he was not only thrown out of German academia, but lived the rest of his life mostly in obscurity, and was forced to live off the wages of his wife.Dr Fred Donner, a friend of Dr Luling and one of the world’s leading scholars on Islam, in his ‘Memoriam’ to Gunter Luling in 2017 (see “In Memoriam”, Al–‘Usur al-Wusta 25, pgs. 229-234, 2017), explains what happened to Dr Luling this way:”Luling’s hypotheses represented a bold challenge to the traditional view of the Qur’ān and its environment held not only by Muslims, but also by Western scholars at the time, for which reason it was received with great hostility by most of the academic establishment in Germany.””The revolutionary nature of Lüling’s hypotheses on the Qur’an and Islam’s origins led fairly quickly to his being forced out of the German academic establishment, even though his dissertation had originally been supported enthusiastically by his Doktorvater and was accepted by his department with the mark of eximium opus, “extraordinary work.” “Lüling’s ideas were just too threatening to certain established scholars whose work would have been overturned by it.””His effort to submit a Habilitationsschrift or “second dissertation,” necessary to qualify for a permanent teaching position in Germany, was thwarted; a number of senior Orientalists, led apparently by the influential Prof. Anton Spitaler of Munich, blocked his efforts to find a position, and organized a virtual conspiracy of silence against him so that his work was hardly reviewed in Germany—and, since it was written in German, few foreign scholars were able readily to follow Lüling’s complex argumentation, or bothered to do so.””Gunter Lüling was never shown the decency of straightforward critical engagement. The way Lüling was treated by those who should have been his colleagues can only be deemed shabby, and stands as a dark stain on the record of the German academic establishment of his time.””Deprived of a university career, Luling nonetheless continued to pursue scholarship for the remainder of his life, working essentially in isolation.””He and his wife lived frugally on her salary, and his scholarship was self-published. He was, naturally, embittered and considered himself a martyr to the causes of true scholarship and proper theology, and sometimes had choice things to say about the German academic establishment; but in his later years, he worked without much overt complaint, ever confident that his ideas would, in the end, be vindicated.”It is only now that his ideas are being taken seriously, due to the translation of his PhD thesis into English, and published in 2003 in India (you can buy it on Amazon.com here: https://www.amazon.com/Challenge-ISLAM-Reformation-Gunter-Luling/dp/9393214085/ref=sr_1_1?qid=1664168148&refinements=p_27%3AMLBD&s=books&sr=1-1&text=MLBDBut Luling is not alone. Christoph Luxenberg, wrote his book, “The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Koran” in 2007, taking what luling did, but expanding it to include the ‘dark passages’ of the Qur’an (around 25% of the Qur’an which Muslim scholars still don’t understand), and it also has been vilified and attacked by Western academics vociferously, yet with little to no engagement with the content of the book itself.So, why these attacks? It seems that the academics are fearful, as Donner noted above, that if Luling and Luxenberg’s research is true, than much of their own academic research will be proven false, which would lead to the curtailment of many of their careers.This, then is the state of our pitiful Western academia today, which indeed is sad.© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(68,230) Music: “Feeling the Caribbean Sun” by Horst Hoffman, from filmmusic-io

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Ep.7: Why are Muslims TERRIFIED of Dr Luling? [Video]

So, why are Muslims so fearful of Dr Gunter Luling? It all has to do with a book her wrote entitled “A Challenge to Islam for Reformation”. Yet, its not the odd title that scares them, but what is written below the title, which says: “The Rediscovery and reliable Reconstruction of a comprehensive pre-Islamic Christian Hymnal hidden in the Koran under earliest Islamic Reinterpretations”.This book was Dr Gunter Luling’s doctoral thesis, written in Germany in 1970. He looked at much of the beautiful poetry in the Qur’an, and found that these poems had all been borrowed from 4th – 6th century Christian Hymns, written in Syro-Aramaic, and then interposed into Arabic by removing the Syriac diacritical marks and replacing them with Arabic diacritical marks, and then finally incorporating the text into the Qur’an sometime in the 8th century, or later.That is why the poetry is so beautiful! It didn’t come from Muhammad or even from Allah at all, but from the Christian writers who wrote them, all before the 7th century.This discovery understandably is dangerous for Muslims, because it proves that much of the Qur’an cannot be attributed to God (see Surah 15:9), nor to any eternal tablets in heaven (see Surah 85:21-22), and certainly not to any man named Muhammad in the 7th century, but were hymns simply borrowed from earlier Christian writers, translated into Arabic, and then included in the Qur’an. His 1970 PhD thesis received an ‘Eximium Opus’ grade, the highest grade available in Germany, which should have promoted him to professorship in any German university he chose.But instead, in 1972, he was kicked out of his University, yet given no reason (some say today it was because ‘He was a crack-pot’, though they don’t explain what they mean), and he and his wife were thrown into obscurity, and lived on welfare for 30 years.That was when I met him in Germany, and took his thesis, helped get it translated into English, whereupon he then had it published in India (the only country that would publish his book), which subsequently made it available for the rest of the world to read.Due to this English rendering of his thesis, Dr Luling was brought back out of obscurity and into academia, as people finally realized just what a breakthrough his research really was, and he died in 2014 a happy man. All of you need to buy this book and read it before it goes out-of-print.You can get it on Amazon here: https://www.amazon.com/Challenge-Islam-Reformation-Reconstruction-Reinterpretations/dp/8120819527/ref=sr_1_1?crid=110MBYMAAT3P6&keywords=gunter+luling&qid=1663698148&sprefix=%2Caps%2C968&sr=8-1Once again, from Dr Luling’s research, we find that the Qur’an is NOT eternal, nor is it from Muhammad, nor even from Uthman, and certainly not from Allah, but was created, much like any other book, by men just like you-and-me, initially by Christian men, writing hymns in Syro-Aramaic in the 4th-7th centuries, and then interposed into Arabic and incorporated into the Qur’an sometime in the 8th-9th centuries.© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(67,970) Music: “Feeling the Caribbean Sun” by Horst Hoffman, from filmmusic-io

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Lloyd#19: The 2 Divisions & 4 Levels of Islamic authority [Video]

Lloyd De Jongh’s material on Shariah law is available freely from Lloyd here: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1BGrC1fxB-ym-ZQ64TtfYEG0vQtYCOIL6Other material: https://www.dropbox.com/s/0f1ga9cvekt18au/Reliance-of-the-Traveller-AppendixW.pdfIn Lloyd’s final episode, he unpacks for us the structures of authority in Islam, which include 2 Divisions and 4 levels.Lloyd begins this talk by stating that Islam has borrowed many of its law from Judaism, but corrupted it along the way, employing Ijma (the consensus of those in authority), and those who refuse to follow it will be killed.This corruption, he maintains, is still very detailed in its setup, which he explains in this episode, pointing out that there are 2 major divisions, with another 4 levels of authority.2 DIVISIONS:1) The first division is that of Sharia itself, which is a legalistic and rigid set of rules and laws, which are for everyone (sometimes referred to as Zahir). It is an outer form of practice.2) The second division is known as Haqiqa, which is a spiritual and inner knowledge (sometimes referred to as Batin), and is only for knowledgeable Imams and scholars.4 LEVELS: 1) The first level is called Ibara, and is for lay Muslims, and deals with legislative subjects which are to be understood literalistically. The Qur’an and Hadith are also at this level.2) The second level is called Ishara, and deals with legislative practitioners. It is reserved for practicing Imams only.3) The third level is called Lataif, and deals with Spiritual practitioners.4) The fourth level is called Haqaiq, and is the Divine Essence with Allah, reserved for protected clerics who are connected to Allah.Levels 3 and 4 are for Sufi leaders only, who are considered the only ones who are good enough to commune directly with Allah. Not everyone may agree with Lloyd concerning these two divisions, or even the 4 levels. But do tell us what you think, and do try to support what you say with source material. Lloyd would love to respond.For those who would like to continue to watch Lloyd’s videos, you can see them on his YouTube channel here: https://www.youtube.com/c/LloydDeJongh/videos© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(67,960) Music: “Epic Heroic Conquest” by Musiclfiles, from filmmusic-io

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Mel: Islam confuses RIDDA Wars with political Rivalry! [Video]

Mel is back again, asking yet more questions concerning the authenticity of the Islamic Traditions, what we call the ‘Standard Islamic Narrative’ (SIN).He asks whether the Ridda Wars (known also as the ‘apostasy wars’ in the Standard Islamic Narrative) ever happened? According to the SIN these battles took place immediately following the death of the prophet Muhammad, between 632-636 AD, as Islam sought to enforce the return of those who had left Islam following the prophet’s death.But 7th century history doesn’t agree that these battles ever occurred for that reason, nor at that time, nor even in that place, Arabia.According to Dr Parvaneh Pourshariati, in her book “Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire”, the accounts by Islam completely confuse the Ridda Apostasy Wars of Arabia with the Political Succession battles of the Sasanian empire following the death of Khusrow II in 628 AD. His death left a political vacuum which needed to be filled, and these battles all took place mostly along the Euphrates River, in Iraq, between 628 – 630 AD, and not further south in Arabia, between 632 – 636 AD.Using Sasanian (Persian) accounts, which would have no reason to refer to wrong dates nor wrong places, she found that these battles were never in Arabia, but 100s of miles further north, because Arabia was a desert, with no water, and thus few people.What’s more, they also happened roughly 4 years earlier than the dates attributed to them by the 8th century Kufan scholar of the Ridda Wars, Sayf ibn Umar in his work entitled “Kitab al-futuh al-kabir wa-l-ridda”, which means ‘The Great book of Conquest and Apostasy’. He places these battles all in Arabia between 632 – 636 AD, as the SIN would have us believe.Interestingly, al Tabari (d. 923 AD) the Abbasid Tarikh compiler confronts Sayf and stipulates that the Ridda wars took place even later, between 635 – 636 AD, suggesting a biassed theological agenda.Mel looked at 10 of these battles, taken from Pourshariati’s book to prove just how wrong the Standard Islamic Narrative was concerning the Ridda Wars.1) Battle of Ubullah: The Sasanian historical account has it in Basra in 628 AD. The Standard Islamic Narrative (SIN) has it in Arabia in 633 AD, thus 4-5 years too late, and 100s of miles too far south.2) Battle of Dhat al-Salasil: The Sasanians put it in Kuwait, in 629 AD. SIN puts it in Arabia in 633 AD. So 4 years too late, and 100s of miles too far south.3) Battle of Madhar: The Sasanians put it in Basra, Iraq, in 629-630 AD. SIN has it in Arabia in 633 AD. So 4 years too late, and 100s of miles too far south.4) Battle of Walajah: The Sasanians place it near As Samawah, Iraq, in 629-630 AD. SIN has it in Arabia in 633 AD. So 3-4 years too late, and 100s of miles too far south.5) Battle of Ullays: The Sasanians situate it near Al Qadisiyah, Iraq, in 630 AD. SIN has it in Arabia in 633 AD. So 3-4 years too late, and 100s of miles too far south.6) Battle of Maqr: The Sasanians say it’s near Kufa, Iraq, in 630 AD. SIN has it in Arabia in 633 AD. So 3-4 years too late, and 100s of miles too far south.7) Battle of Veh Ardashir: The Sasanians stipulate that it’s near Baghdad, Iraq, in 630 AD. SIN has it in Arabia in 634 AD. So 4 years too late, and 100s of miles too far south.8) Battle of Anbar: The Sasanian historical account has it near Anbar, Iraq, in 630 AD. SIN has it in Arabia in 634 AD. So 4 years too late, and 100s of miles too far south.9) Battle of Ayn Tamr: The Sasanians say it’s near Ein ut Tamr, Iraq, in 630 AD. SIN has it in Arabia in 634 AD. So 4 years too late, and 100s of miles too far south.10) Battle of Firaz: The Sasanians suggest it is near Firaz, Iraq, in 630 AD. SIN has it in Arabia in 634 AD. So 4 years too late, and 100s of miles too far south.Mel suggests that the reason the historical dates are all 4 years earlier may have to do with the real date of the Hijrah, which the SIN uses for its dating system. According to 4 external historical accounts, the “Year of the Saracen Rebellion” (note, not a movement from one place to another) took place in 618 AD, and not in 622 AD as the SIN suggests.1) The Chinese (651 AD) say it happened 34 years earlier, thus 618 AD.2) The Samarkand Chronicle (719 AD) refers to the 100th year since it happened, thus 618 AD.3) The Byzantine Arab Chronicle (741 AD) places it in the 7th year of Heraclius, thus 618 AD.4) The Hispanic Chronicle (754 AD) also places it in 618 AD.These are all external sources, which all agree that this was a rebellion, not an immigration, and that it happened in Syria and Iraq, not Arabia.So, history tells us that these battles were mostly in Iraq, immediately following 628 AD due to political succession struggles, while the SIN says they were between 632-636 AD, due to apostasy, proving that they were at the wrong time and the wrong place, with the wrong people, and for the wrong reasons.© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(67,940)

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911 – What caused it? Hatun & Jay discuss its ROOTS! [Video]

21 years ago today 19 young Muslim men hijacked 4 airliners and flew 2 of them into the World Trade Center in New York City, and a third into the Pentagon in Washington, while the fourth was brought down by courageous passengers in Pennsylvania, killing just under 3,000 Americans.Today we need to remember that event, but also pray for the families of those nearly 3,000 victims, who have to live with their memories of that day every year.By why did it happen and what was the motivation for those 19 Muslims? 21 years later few know the answer to that question, and those that do dare not say, for fear of getting the wrath of Muslims who claim that this atrocity has nothing to do with Islam, since Islam is “a religion of peace, Muhammad was a man of peace, and the Qur’an is a book of peace”.But are they, and could that they are the reason for the atrocities perpetrated 21 years ago today?Watch Hatun as she interviews Dr Smith on these questions, and see if you agree with the answers Dr Smith’s responses.Then you tell us what you think in the comments below. If we still don’t know the cause of 911 after 21 years, or refuse to talk about it, won’t it simply happen again, and again, and again?© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(67,900)

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Promo: CIRA International Conference October 14-17 & 21-22 [Video]

Do you want to be more effective at sharing Christ with your Muslim friends and neighbors? This online conference will feature four days of specialized teaching and presentations on sharing the Gospel with Muslim men and women, apologetics, and prophecy by world known and inspiring speakers.* REGISTER NOW***First WeekendFriday and Saturday, October 14 and 15, 2022, beginning at 12:00pm Eastern Time.Friday, October 14 – Track 1 – Apologetics to our Muslim FriendsSaturday, October 15 – Track 2 – Ministry to Muslim Women Second WeekendFriday and Saturday, October 21 and 22, 2022, beginning at 12:00pm Eastern Time.Friday, October 21 – Track 3 – Local Muslim Outreach & Discipleship: Immigrants and StudentsSaturday, October 22 – Track 4 – Prophecy in the Middle East Early Registration DiscountEnter Promo Code EARLYBIRD for a 30% discountSeparate registration and payment is required for each weekend.Tickets are $30 per day or $100 for all four days. If you want to attend the entire conference, you must register and pay for the First Weekend and the Second Weekend.Registration Deadline: Last day for conference registration/ticket purchase (for any track) is Wednesday, October 12, at 11:59 PM Eastern Time.For more information about the Conference: https://cirainternational.com/conference/© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(67,850)

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Ep.6b: By adding 5 dots & 3 vowels the Qur’an changes! [Video]

Since the last video, there have been many Muslims (and others as well) who are questioning why we keep insisting that when adding or subtracting the 5 dots and 3 vowels in the Arabic alphabet this changes the meaning of the words, and thus the meanings of the sentences in the Qur’an, which confronts the notion that the Qur’an has been preserved completely and perfectly, without one word or one letter accreted or deleted in the past 1400 years. To support these claims, Hatun and I went back to Speaker’s Corner on Sunday, the 7th of August (2016), to introduce 26 Arabic Qur’ans which we claimed had differences between them, and had differences with the current canonized ‘Hafs’ Qur’an, used by millions around the world today.The mostly Arabic speaking crowd who listened to us became understandably quite agitated and angry, as this material goes against everything they have been taught for over 1,000 years, and would suggest that their Qur’an does not come from God, but was simply made by man, which would explain then why there were so many differences.Because of the volatility of Speaker’s Corner, and because the material we were introducing was quite technical and difficult to communicate, especially to an angry crowd; we announced from the ladder that we would be putting up another ‘follow-up’ video to not only explain what we were saying on the ladder, but show the actual changes which we could find in the written Arabic between the 26 Arabic Qur’ans on display.The video we show here is that ‘follow-up’ video. In it you will see Hatun and me discuss in a quiet studio the differences which do exist between a few of the 26 Qur’ans, as well as the background concerning how and why these differences occur.Unsurprisingly, since we put up this video, the only response from Muslims has been that these Qira’at changes were simply dialectical, or pronunciation differences, and nothing more, and that the meaning of the text continued to remain exactly the same in every Qira’at.As far as they are concerned, the Muslims are of one mind that adding or subtracting the dots and vowels to the Arabic letters are simply for dialectical purposes of pronunciation, but retain the exact meaning in each dialect, and therefore do not change the meaning for any of the words, or of the sentences.Most of those who say this either don’t understand Arabic, or they have not been shown any examples of the variant words, which would prove to them just how dynamically these variants not only change the meanings, but they change the context of the verses, which at times change the doctrine, or the beliefs, and even at times change the practices being described in the text.We are now 6 years later and still we hear the same dogged and worn-out refrain from Muslims that nothing has changed in meaning with the addition of the 5 dots and 3 vowels.That is why I have decided to reprise the video again for Pfanderfilms which Hatun and I recorded back in August 2016.In this roughly hour and 15-minute video, recorded at the Pfander centre in London the next day, Hatun and I unpacked example after example of just how different the meanings are with the Arabic words once you add or take away dots and vowels from those words.We looked at 14 examples in depth, including Surahs 2:10, 2:48, 2:125, 2:132, 2:140, 2:184, 2:214, 2:219, 2:271, 3:146, 21:4, 28:48, 34:17, 114:2. And then we looked more cursively at another 9 verses, including Surahs 1:4, 2:58, 2:259, 3:81, 3:133, 4:152, 5:54, 21:4, 91:15, in order to prove just how different they were once you add or subtract a dot or vowel.We then opened up a number of pages and looked randomly at a few of Hatun’s Qira’at Qur’ans and pointed to coloured words printed in the Arabic text where the publishers pointed out differing words in each of the texts between one student and another (referred to as Riwayat) within a family of Qira’at writers, proving that even today Muslim publishers aren’t trying to hide these differences which existed between the Riwayat students.Muslims, however, haven’t been told this, nor shown it, so that is why I’ve decided to re-post this video for all of you to use for yourselves and for your Muslim friends, so that never again can they excuse these Qira’at Qur’an differences as simple dialectical pronunciation differences.Adding or subtracting a dot, or a vowel, not only changes that word, it changes its meaning, which changes the context, which at times changes the doctrine, or the theology, or even a practice, proving that the Qur’an has never been perfectly preserved as the Muslims claim, but has gone through massive changes to its texts over the intervening 1400 years.© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(67,820) Music:

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Ep.6: Note how early Muslims Changed the early Qur’an! [Video]

Muslims claim that there is only ONE Qur’an, with not ONE WORD nor even ONE LETTER which is different. They have to say that, because if there was even one word different, it no longer is divine, nor is it eternal (Surah 85:22), nor can they claim Allah has guarded it (Surah 15:9), but man has now added to his word (Surahs 10:15 and 18:27).So, why did these different words and phrases come into the Qur’an? Well it seems that the Qur’an was borrowed from earlier Christian Aramaic Lectionnaries, Hymns and Homilies, written by Christian clerics in the 4th – 7th centuries.The problem was that many Arabs couldn’t read the Aramaic, and their own Arabic alphabet was only being formed in the 7th century, and only had between 14 – 16 letters (known as Rasm), which couldn’t accommodate the more sophisticated Aramaic texts they were borrowing from.They, therefore had to eventually invent 5 dots (three placed above the letters to create the n, t, and th letters, and two below the letters to create the b, and y letters), which permitted them to now have 5 distinct letters. On top of that they had to create 3 vowels (the Dhamma or u vowel, the Kasra or i vowel, and the Fatha or a vowel).When you place them above or below the consonantal Rasm text they went from 14 letters up to the current 28 letters, which then could make all kinds of different words, and help the Arab readers understand what they were now reading.in fact with just a 3 letter word, placing the 5 dots and 3 vowels allowed someone to come up with 19 to 33 different words.When placed in a sentence, the variations would be enormous, and that is how the Arabs manipulated the text they were given, and changed it into the Qur’an we have today, as they didn’t know what they were reading and so created a Qur’an which fit their narrative, all during the 8th – 10th centuries, changing and even desecrating the Qur’an while doing it.© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(67,720) Music: “Feeling the Caribbean Sun” by Horst Hoffman, from filmmusic-io

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Lloyd#18: Sahih, vs Hassan, vs Da’if Shariah rulings! [Video]

Go here to get Lloyd’s material: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiyIXknJOnGXmnYB3UrXaHQ/community?lb=Ugkx5K9TZVCqaWNfHz-6RrGfd1mRmpohppszOften Muslims claim that many of the most embarrassing Hadith and rules of Shariah law are not authoritative and viable today due to the fact that they were considered “Da’if”, or ‘weak’ traditions.But is this the case? Lloyd tackles this supposition by returning to the 2 most prestigious seminaries in the Muslim world today, the one in Medina, Saudi Arabia, and the Al Azhar seminary in Cairo, Egypt.In both those locations they use the Tafsir (commentary) on the Hadith entitled “Fatḥ al-Bārī fī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī” which is a multi-volume commentary on the Sunni hadith collection of Sahih al-Bukhari, composed by Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani Shafi.On page 11 of that document is states that similar to the Hadith, Islamic Shariah laws also have 3 gradations of importance, Sahih (which are considered perfect laws), Hassan (which are deemed of medium importance), and ‘Da’if’ (which are considered weak rulings).It grades the importance of accuracy for each of the three (and adds a fourth at the end) staging:1) Sahih rulings are considered having 99% – 100% chance of being accurate2) Hassan rulings are considered having 85% – 99% chance of being accurate3) Da’if rulings are considered having 45% – 85% chance of being accurate4) Fabricated Laws are considered having 0% – 45% of being accurateYet, the document continues by stating that the weakest ‘Da’if’ can still be used and must not be discarded or removed because it is still from Muhammad and thus better than anything else produced by other men.So, how were these percentages decided, and who decided which rulings were Sahih, or Hassan, or Da’if? It turns out that, much like the Qira’at choices, these were decided by which rulings had the strongest set of names (known as Isnad), which means they are completely dependent on “oral tradition’.What’s more, the list of Isnad which were considered the strongest were decided by which list had the largest number of people who passed them on.Thus, it had everything to do with popularity, and nothing to do with whether the rulings were good or not, or even whether they were relevant for then, or for now.© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(67,650) Music: “Epic Heroic Conquest” by Musiclfiles, from filmmusic-io

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Lloyd#17: Does Shariah permit Cultural differences? [Video]

Lloyd goes to the question concerning whether differing cultural practices are permitted within Shariah law?This question comes from statements he has made previously that laws which are written down are not necessarily practiced correctly by believers in different parts of the Muslim world.Lloyd’s response is that these differences are examples of ‘Azimah’ which are strict adherence to the laws, and ‘Ruxsah’ lax adherence to the laws, and that there is a broad spectrum of adherence throughout the Muslim world.For instance, according to Shariah law Muslims can kill non-Muslims, women and children, apostates and dishonorable children, but different cultures follow or don’t follow these injunction throughout the Muslim world.Islam has 5 Maxims, which are:1) Acts are judged by intention (in other words, if it is done for Allah, it is permissible).2) Harm must be eliminated (thus, Samuel Paty must be killed because showing the Charlie Hebdo cartoons is harmful to Muslims).3) Certainty is not overruled by doubt (thus, always be certain).4) Cultural usage has the weight of Law (so, cultural differences are acceptable).5) Hardship begets facility (so, if you are having a tough time, simply forget the law).In application, this means that if a Muslim does a sinful act by accident (he killed someone out of anger accidentally), it is fine, and similar to a 3rd degree murder here in the West.So, cultural differences are fine as they fit within the spectrum of Azimah and Ruxhah usage.What is clear, however, the manuals, and the Qur’an take precedence over any cultural practices, because they are written down.While Muslims do not like Lloyd pointing out all of these Shariah practices, they haven’t been able to yet point to any contravening laws within the manuals or the Qur’an, or to any weaknesses in Lloyd’s applications or interpretations of these laws.And so they stand…© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(67,560) Music: “Epic Heroic Conquest” by Musiclfiles, from filmmusic-io

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Faith

NEW MAPI Course: “Islam’s Beliefs & Practices” (Aug 29 – Oct 17) [Video]

We now begin the second of our ten MAPI Courses for our ‘Master’s Degree in Apologetics and Polemics to Islam’ program (MAPI). This course is entitled IS502 “Deen (Practices) and Iman (Beliefs) of Islam”, taught by Al Fadi, every Monday night from August 29 until October 17, 2022.This course is foundational as it unpacks intrinsically the 5 practices (which some call the 5 pillars of Islam) which every Muslim must do, and the 6 core beliefs every Muslim must believe, and then gives a Christian response to each.So, beginning on Monday the 29th of August, 2022 (beginning at 8:00 p.m. – Eastern Time) Al Fadi will be offering the first of 8 previously recorded lectures, followed by a live discussion and Q&A between the students and al Fadi, as well as Dr Jay Smith on the material introduced in each lecture.To register for the course just e-mail before August 29th to: info@ves.eduAl Fadi will be introducing each lecture ‘live’, via Zoom Webinar, every Monday evening, from 8:00 p.m. – 10:00 p.m. (Eastern Time – USA), from August 29th – October 17th (inclusive), so you can watch the lectures from the comfort of your own home, anywhere in the world, or at any time, as they will be recorded and the URL will be sent to you the next day.But you need to be a Christian to take this course, due to the fact that it is being taught at the ‘Veritas International University’ (VIU) which is a Christian seminary, and, therefore, can only permit Christian students to participate.Every lecture will be recorded, and the URL along with the PowerPoint and PDFs for every lecture will be sent to every registered student, so that those who cannot be at the ‘live lectures’ (via the Zoom Webinar), can still watch them wherever they are in the world, and at any time they choose.As we have in the past, we are offering this course for 3 categories of students:1) Full-TIme Master’s or Doctoral Degree Students: The first category are those students who want to take this course for a Master’s or a Doctorate academic credit. This is a 3-credit course, so the fee for each credit is $330, which makes the cost for the whole course around $1,100 (depending on whether you are a returning or a new student). For these full-time students, the full course itself continues for 15 weeks, stretching from August 29th – December 5th (though there are only 8 weeks of lecture). This will give you ample time to read and then write logs of the books required for the course, participate in the discussions, write your Research papers, and write your final ‘open book’ exam.2) Audit Students: The second category are those students who want to simply audit the course. The fee for this 8-week course is $280. An Audit student will have access to the Populi site where the discussions and assignments are found (like the Full-time academic students), and will have access to the lectures and will be sent the PowerPoints and PDFs to download.3) Personal Enrichment Students: The third category are those students who simply want to take this course for their ‘Personal Enrichment’. Their fee for the 8-week course is $200. Unlike the Full-time students or the Audit students, they will not have access to the Populi site, but will still have “live access” to all of the lectures and will be sent the PowerPoints and PDFs to download.To underline the distinctions, while all of the students in all 3 categories will have access to all of the lectures and to all of the PowerPoints and PDFs for the entire course, the full-time Academic as well as the Audit students will also have admission to the Populi site to participate in the ongoing weekly discussions, and will have access to the reading lists and assignments, though the full-time students will only be required to fulfill them.If you are interested in any of these 3 levels, simply e-mail the registrar ‘Noelle’ or ‘Peter’ at: info@ves.eduBut you need to hurry, as the first lecture begins on Monday, August 29th, 2022, at 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time (US).Just e-mail: info@ves.edu and tell them ‘Jay sent you’Lecture Topics:Part 1: The Practices (Deen) and Beliefs (Iman) of Islam, an introductionPart 2: Islam’s Statement of Faith (the Shahada)Part 3: The five daily prayers (the Salaat)Part 4: The Islamic fast (the Sawm)Part 5: Tithing in Islam (the Zakaat)Part 6: The Pilgrimage (the Hajj)Part 7: The doctrine of the Islamic god (Allah)Part 8: The Islamic view of prophet-hood (Rasul, or Nabi)Part 9: The Islamic Doctrine of revelation (i.e. its view of the Qur’an)Part 10: The Islamic views of angels (Malayka)Part 11: The doctrine of predestination (the Asim al-Qadr)Part 12: The Islamic doctrine of final judgement (Qiayama)We’re looking forward to seeing as many of you as possible on Monday, August the 29th, but you need to register first at: info@ves.edu© Pfander Centre for Apologetics – US, 2022(67,490) Music: “Reaching for the Sky” by Alexander Nakarada, from filmmusic-io